However, some third-country nationals are allowed to stay more than 90 days in the Schengen area without having to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for an extended residence visa.  In addition, Article 20, paragraph 2, of the Schengen Agreement continues to apply it “in exceptional circumstances” and bilateral agreements concluded by some signatory states with other countries prior to the convention`s entry into force. For example, New Zealand nationals can stay for up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already entered into bilateral visa-free agreements with the New Zealand government prior to the entry into force of the bilateral visa waiver agreement, without the need to apply for a long-term visa. but if you are travelling to other Schengen countries, the 90 days apply within 180 days.            Authorizations are issued with a validity period of one to five years and allow for stay in the border area for up to three months. Permissions may only be granted to legitimate residents of the border area who have been in the border area for at least one year (or more if provided for in the bilateral agreement). Applicants must prove that they have legitimate reasons for frequently crossing a land border under the local border transportation system. Schengen states must maintain a central register of authorisations issued and allow other Schengen states immediate access to relevant data.
After Slovakia, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Poland announced in mid-March the complete closure of their national borders, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said that “some controls may be justified, but the World Health Organization does not consider general travel bans to be the most effective. In addition, they have strong social and economic repercussions, disrupting people`s lives and affairs across borders.  Von der Leyen also apologised to Italy, amid widespread Italian discontent over Europe`s lack of solidarity.  Until the end of March 2020, almost all of Schengen`s internal borders were closed to non-essential travel. By July 2020, most of the borders closed due to coronavirus had been reopened. Before reaching an agreement with a neighbouring country, the Schengen State must obtain the authorisation of the European Commission, which must certify that the draft agreement complies with the regulation. The agreement can only be concluded if the neighbouring EEA state and the Swiss on the Schengen side of the border area at least grant reciprocal rights and accept the repatriation of those who have abused the border agreement. There is no doubt that the Netherlands has repeatedly blocked Romania and Bulgaria`s accession to the 26-country free movement agreement. In 1999, the United Kingdom formally requested participation in certain provisions of the Schengen acquis – Title III on police security and judicial cooperation – in 1999, and this request was adopted by the Council of the European Union on 29 May 2000.  The UK`s formal participation in previously approved areas of cooperation was brought into effect by a 2004 Council decision that came into force on 1 January 2005.  Although the United Kingdom was not part of the Schengen area, it has always used the Schengen information system, a government database used by European countries to store and disseminate information on individuals and goods.